The 3D equine skeletal model based on CT data can be used to characterize equine postures associated with degenerative tissue changes as well as to identify postures that reduce mechanical stress at the sites of tissue injury. When animated into 4D, the model can be used to demonstrate unhealthy and healthy skeletal movements and can be used to develop preventative and rehabilitative individualized therapies for horses with degenerative lamenesses.

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Through comparison with the human Achilles complex, this review (1) re-conceptualizes the equine navicular apparatus as an enthesis organ in which mechanical forces are distributed throughout the structures of the organ; (2) describes the relationship between failure of the navicular enthesis organ and lesions of navicular syndrome; (3) considers the therapeutic implications of navicular enthesis organ degeneration as a form of chronic osteoarthritis; and based upon these implications (4) proposes a focus on whole body posture/motion for the development of prehabilitative and rehabilitative therapies similar to those that have already proven effective in humans.


The combination of large mastoid processes and clavicles is unique to humans, but the biomechanical and evolutionary significance of their special configuration is poorly understood. As part of the newly conceptualized shoulder suspension apparatus, the mastoid processes and clavicles are shaped by forces exerted by the musculo-fascial components of the cleidomastoid and clavotrapezius muscles as they suspend the shoulders from the head. Because both skeletal elements develop during infancy in tandem with the attainment of an upright posture, increased manual dexterity, and the capacity for walking, we hypothesized that the same forces would have shaped them as the shoulder suspension apparatus evolved in ancestral humans in tandem with an upright posture, increased manual dexterity, and bipedality with swinging arms.


Zhongqiang Li, Zheng Li, Waleed Zaid, Michelle L. Osborn, Yanping Li, Shaomian Yao, Jian Xu. 2022. Mouthwash as a non-invasive method of indocyanine green delivery for near-infrared fluorescence dental imaging. J. Biomed. Opt. 27(6), 066001, doi:

Schachner ER, Diaz Jr RE, Coke R, Echols MS, Osborn ML, Hedrick BP. 2022. Architecture of the bronchial tree in Cuvier’s dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus). Anatomical Record. online ahead of print.

Rockwell K, Rademacher N, Osborn ML, Nevarez JG. 2022. Extravasation of Contrast Media after Subcarapacial Vessel Injection in Three Chelonian Species. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 53(2):402-411.

Denys A, Pedersen KB, Watt J, Norman AR, Osborn ML, Chen J-R, Maimone C, Littleton S, Vasiliou V, Ronis MJJ. 2021. Binge ethanol exposure in mice represses expression of genes involved in osteoblast function and induces expression of genes involved in osteoclast differentiation independently of endogenous catalase. Toxicological Science. 185(2):232-245.  

Osborn ML*, Blas-Machado U, Uhl EW. 2021. The Equine Navicular Apparatus as a Premier Enthesis Organ: Functional Implications. Veterinary Surgery 2021; 1-16.

Lee AKK, Uhl EW, Osborn ML*. 2021. Construction of a Realistic, Whole-Body Three-Dimensional Equine Skeletal Model Using CT Data. Journal of Visualized Experiments (168), e62276, doi:10.3791/62276.

Li Z, Ramos Ramirez A, Li Z, Osborn ML, Li X, Li Y, Yao S, Xu J*. 2021. An Optimized JPEG-XT-based Algorithm for the Lossy and Lossless Compression of 16-bit Depth Medical Image. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, 64:102306.

Li Z, Li Z, Holamoge Y, Zaid W, Osborn ML, Bhatta S, Jeyaseelan A, Li Y, Yao S, Xu J. 2021. Mouthwash to Deliver Indocyanine Green for Infrared Dental Fluorescence Imaging. Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 27(4)1-8. Art no. 6800108,

Li Z, Holamoge YV, Li Z, Miller JT, Osborn ML, Shan X, Ramos A, Li Y, Zaid W*, Yao S*, Xu J*. 2020. Detection and analysis of enamel cracks by ICG-NIR fluorescence dental imaging. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Accepted April.

Pederson KB, Osborn ML, Robertson AC, Williams A, Watt J, Denys A, Brandes R, Schröder K, Ronis MJ*. 2020. Chronic Ethanol Feeding in Mice Decreases Gene Expression for Major Structural Bone Proteins in a Nox4-independent Manner. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 373:337-346.

Williams AE, Watt J, Robertson LW, Ganupudi G, Osborn ML, Soares MJ, Iqbal K, Pedersen KB, Littleton S, Maimone C, Suva LJ, Ronis MJJ. 2020. Skeletal Toxicity of Co-planar Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congener 126 in the Rat is Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent. Toxicological Sciences, 175(1):113-125.

Li Z, Hartzler T, Ramos A, Osborn ML, Shan X, Li Y, Yao S*, Xu J*. 2020. Optimal Imaging Windows of Indocyanine Green-assisted Near Infrared Dental Imaging with Rat Model and Its Comparison to X-ray Imaging. Journal of Biophotonics. 13(6):e201960232.

Chaichi A, Lijesh KP, Prasad A, Ettefagh AH, Shaik S, Dasa V, Guo S, Osborn ML, Devireddy R, Khonsari MM, Gartia MR*. 2019. Improvement of Tribological and Biocompatibility Properties of Orthopedic Materials Using Piezoelectric Direct Discharge Plasma Surface Modification. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering. 5: 2147-2159.

Li Z, Zaid W, Hartzler T, Ramos A, Osborn ML, Li Y, Yao S*, Xu J*. 2019. Indocyanine Green-assisted Dental Imaging in the First and Second Near-Infrared Windows as Compared with X-ray Imaging. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, In “MARROW,” ed. by M. Zaidi.Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.1448: 42–51.

Uhl EW*, Osborn ML. The Pathomechanics of Degenerative Joint Disease: A One Health Comparative Case Study Approach. 2016. AAVMC /APTR One Health Case Studies,

Osborn ML*, Homberger DG. The Human Shoulder Suspension Apparatus: A Causal Explanation for Bilateral Asymmetry and a Fresh Look at the Evolution of Human Bipedality. 2015. The Anatomical Record, 298 (9): 1572-1588.

Redd TC*, Dubansky BH, Osborn ML, Tully TN, Homberger DG*. 2012. A registration algorithm for the identification of individual parrots based on the patterns of filing ridges on their upper bill tip. International Journal of Biology and Biometrics, 6 (3): 68-91.

Homberger DG*, Ham K, Ogunbakin T, Bonin JA, Hopkins BA, Osborn ML, Hossain I, Barnett HA, Matthews II KL, Butler LG, Bragulla HH. 2009. The structure of the cornified claw sheath in the domestic cat (Felis catus): Implications for the claw shedding mechanism. Journal of Anatomy, 214: 620-643.